A Brief History of Newfoundland & Labrador

Glad to help, buddy!

Chances are that if you’re reading this, you are sitting (or standing) in or around St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador. Congratulations! You’re in a magical world of multicoloured houses, fog, and city streets that make no sense. This city is the birthplace of British imperialism, the wireless telegraph, and our Lord and Saviour Danny Williams. Newfoundland and Labrador’s biggest exports include labour power for the Alberta oil sands, Republic of Doyle, and most recently, equalization payments to subsidize our poor cousins in Ontario.

Historically, of course, things weren’t always so rosy. The quality of life in much of the province before Confederation in 1949 could generously be described as ‘medieval’. Unemployment has been a problem here since they started keeping records, and there is also an unfortunate piece of local history where the indigenous Beothuk people go extinct. Most of downtown St. John’s has burned down a good two or three or five times too.

Got booze?

From its discovery until well into the 19th century, the only reason anyone came to this jagged rock off the coast of North America was its location next to one of the world’s richest fisheries. Fishing, of course, is a hard living, and it didn’t help that the economy was almost entirely structured around having fishers remain perpetually in debt to a handful of fish merchants. Also, the only thing there was to do for fun was go to church and start fights with people who don’t go to the same church—that is, unless it was Christmas, in which case you would dress up in ridiculous clothes and go around drinking other people’s booze. This is called mummering, and it’s amazing.

If the province’s economic history is a story about the fishery, its political history is one about trying to get away from it. It’s pretty much impossible to collect taxes from fishermen if the industry ensures they literally never have cash, and we know how much politicians love collecting your money. Unfortunately, the historical method of development here has generally been to find the richest industrialist(s) around, give them a bunch of land and subsidies, and hope for the best. That’s how we got the (now defunct) railway, the (now defunct) paper mill in Grand Falls, and the (probably soon-to-be defunct) paper mill in Corner Brook.

The Richard Squires escape clause

Also, for some reason, voters in the 1920s and early 1930s kept electing Sir Richard Squires as the Prime Minister despite the fact that he and his government were routinely getting busted for corruption. They were apparently willing to let it slide until the Depression hit, and in April 1932 something like 10,000 people rioted in the streets of St. John’s. They stormed the Colonial Building on Military Road and smashed everything inside, and Squires barely escaped with his life out one of the back windows.

The government that succeeded him took one look at the mess the country was in and decided they wanted nothing to do with it: in perhaps the smartest move ever undertaken by Newfoundland’s politicians, they voted themselves out of existence in 1934.

Farfalle, aka Smallwood pasta

By the time World War 2 was over, the island was a lot more prosperous and people were ready for a go at politics again. The first thing that happened was an epic showdown over whether or not to join Canada. In one corner, repping “the People” and a hilarious assortment of bowties was Joseph R. “Joey” Smallwood, local radio host, pig farmer, and union activist (he once walked the entire length of the island’s railway doing a recruiting drive); in the other were the St. John’s merchants and the local branch of the Catholic Church. After two extremely close referendums, Confederation won by the tiniest of margins and, against everyone’s better judgement, Joey Smallwood became our first Premier.

“Ich ist der b'y, der das Boot baut!”

Smallwood was determined to modernize the hell out of Newfoundland, and by God did he ever try. Sometimes—okay, most of the time—a little too hard. The first thing Joey did upon assuming absolute power was hire a Latvian con-artist named Alfred Valdmanis who helped him track down German industrialists to build random factories everywhere. Literally. Didn’t matter what they made or whether or not the products were even any good; if you would actually build your factory in Newfoundland, Joey would subsidize it. During the 1950s the man built everything from a rubber boot factory to a chocolate bar factory to an ugly sweater factory and even a machine manufacturing plant that Joey was convinced would create over 10,000 jobs. It didn’t: almost every single one of these plants was closed by 1960, because, as it turns out, you can’t actually just build random factories everywhere for no reason and expect them to make any money.

Not that this put a damper on Smallwood, of course: the man was always bursting with good ideas. A few of his unrealized dreams fill up a whole chapter in his autobiography: at various points in his tenure, it turns out, he considered other brilliant ideas like building a replica German town filled with actual non-English speaking Germans out in the bay somewhere as a tourist trap, swapping oil from the Come-by-Chance refinery (one of the largest bankruptcies in Canadian history, by the way) for orange juice, and introducing a herd of bison to a small island off the south coast (this last one actually happened, and it went over about as well as you’d think). Never let it be said he wasn’t one for thinking outside the box. Oh, and his government also pretty much gave Quebec a century of free hydro electricity, but this last one’s kind of a minor point that never comes up.

1. Grow cucumbers. 2. ??? 3. Profit!

After almost a quarter-century of this nonsense, Comrade Smallwood was finally turfed in the early 1970s by the dashing young Frank Moores, a man dedicated to throwing sexy parties and corporatizing the fishery. But provincial politics eventually put a damper on the sexy parties, and being a man whose priorities were in order, Moores resigned a few years later. His successor was the significantly less dashing Brian Peckford, who is arguably Newfoundland’s greatest proponent of healthy eating. When Peckford wasn’t fighting with Ottawa for offshore oil rights, he was a big cucumber enthusiast; so big, in fact, he was seduced by a sales pitch that promised Newfoundland and Labrador would be the world capital of cucumbers if he’d just build a giant hydroponic greenhouse in Mount Pearl. Seriously. Sprung Greenhouse cost $23 million dollars, the cucumbers were outrageously expensive, and no one had bothered to check into the market research which showed that Newfoundlanders, on average, ate one cucumber a year. I honestly don’t know why they didn’t just grow pot, because someone in the Premier’s office was obviously high.

Because of inflation, Dollarama now sells shipyards for two dollars

Unfortunately for the Tory government at the time, Peckford’s Pickle Palace wasn’t the hit they were hoping for, and they were swept out of office in the next election. Even more unfortunately for the Liberals who replaced them, they came into power just in time for the cod fishery to collapse in 1992; apparently, if hundreds of factory trawlers spend two decades razing the ocean floor, you’ll eventually catch all the fish? This probably would have been it for the province if they hadn’t also discovered oil off the coast in 1979, even though the province wouldn’t really start seeing a lot of revenue until around the millennium. In the meantime, Premier Clyde Wells metaphorically flipped off Brian Mulroney by torpedoing the Meech Lake Accord, Premier Brian Tobin sold the Marystown shipyard for a dollar before deciding to spontaneously bail on being the Premier, and Premier Roger Grimes managed to get the province’s name changed from ‘Newfoundland’ to ‘Newfoundland and Labrador’ before the party was tossed out of power by Danny Williams heading into the most prosperous time the province has ever known.

“Pass the #tequila Sheila! TROLOLOL”

Danny Williams, of course, is probably the most popular Premier we ever had: we liked the guy as much as we liked Joey, except Danny also had the foresight to quit the game before degenerating into senility. Say what you will about him (and there are a lot of things to say), but anyone who literally runs a national campaign against Stephen Harper, motivated entirely out of spite, is pretty all right on in my books. But his achievements since leaving politics overshadow anything he did in office: dude brought the AHL back to Town. He got us hockey, b’ys! How wicked is that?This is probably also the part where I should mention what Kathy Dunderdale’s new government has been doing, but mostly, they just don’t.

And here we are. Newfoundland and Labrador’s story is still unfolding, but if this transparently glib interpretation of history teaches us anything, it’s that whatever is in store next is guaranteed to be hilarious. Especially now that our politicians are on Twitter. Can you imagine if John Crosbie was tweeting back in the 70s? Iron Sheik, eat your heart out.


Another under-paid position

I saw you, another under-paid position, posted on the local job site, for someone to work in/manage the shop of one of our most visible tourist attractions, in a province where millions are spent on advertising to get people here, where millions are spent on that tv show to promote the place, where Billions are […]

6 March 2013

  1. Zsa Zsa · March 6, 2013

    Drew, thank you for this. Unbelievable bordering on baffling, I say. Remarkable what the province has been through in terms of leadership and governance. I hope the toxicity of bureaucracy and incompetence does not contaminate the next generation because that’s what it will take. A generational change in the government.

  2. hypertext · March 6, 2013

    This is nice but It would have been better if you included links. This is the internet after all.

  3. Elling Lien · March 6, 2013

    This was originally for print, and web links might come soon.

    In the meantime, lmgtfy.

  4. ImTellingMom · March 6, 2013

    That was quite a refreshing take on our history, Mr. Brown. Good on ya! Thanks for the enjoyable read!

  5. WJM · March 6, 2013

    Where in Newfoundland does Quebec get “free” electricity from?

  6. James · March 6, 2013

    Seriously………. are you being stupid? Or are you one of those “arrogant” people who believe Labrador is a separate province?

  7. hypertext · March 6, 2013

    Jeez, some friendly.

  8. WJM · March 6, 2013

    Neither. I ask again: where in Newfoundland does Quebec get “free” electricity from?

  9. Elling Lien · March 6, 2013

    I think he’s talking about the title, and, unfortunately, it’s an appropriate comment.


    For the record, that was an editorial blunder, not a Drew blunder.

    I secretly revised the title just now so most people will not even know what I’m talking about.

  10. Elling Lien · March 6, 2013

    I’m a terrifying internet being.

  11. Emma · March 6, 2013

    Maybe if you’d said it as Hulk it would have gone over better.

  12. WJM · March 6, 2013

    If so, what does it say that the only Labrador history worthy of inclusion is Churchill Falls?

  13. Elling Lien · March 6, 2013


  14. Sean · March 6, 2013

    Drew said: “The government that succeeded him took one look at the mess the country was in and decided they wanted nothing to do with it: in perhaps the smartest move ever undertaken by Newfoundland’s politicians, they voted themselves out of existence in 1934.”

    I take issue with characterizing the surrendering of democracy as “smart”. No matter how screwed up things get, some democracy is always better than no democracy. There are various reasons why the country was in such a mess in 1934: 1) war debt repayments – along with our great sacrifices as a nation in World War 1 (1914-1918), the cost of mounting this effort sank Newfoundland into almost insurmountable debt. While most other countries eventually defaulted on that debt, only Newfoundland and one other country tried to pay their war debts off in full; 2) The international depression which began with the NY stock market crash in 1929 – already deep in debt with minimal social programs to create employment or otherwise maintain the population, citizens of our tiny nation suffered greatly as a result of the market crash, which destroyed markets for our exports; 3) the construction of the NL Railway – the Port Aux Basques to St. John’s line was an important piece of infrastructure, but political interference resulted in totally unfeasible branch lines being built here and there, including down the southern shore, and the debt associated with such undertakings only added to the war debt. Number 3 was totally the fault of our politicians. Number 2 was completely out of their hands. Number 1 is complicated. I’m not saying we shouldn’t have joined Canada in 1949, which is a separate question, but I question whether Commission of Government (the government composed of half a dozen men appointed by Britain which ruled NL from ’34-’49) was the right or “smartest” move, as Drew says. Our government was corrupt, as were most elected governments then (and now), but the scale of that corruption is not what drove her down. The level of corruption was a political, but not an economic cause of the decision to surrender our democracy.

  15. Rick Spence · March 6, 2013

    Fantastic work of history, hilarious and tragic at the same time.
    And very useful for the out-of-towner.
    Nicely done, Drew.

  16. Cathy Young · March 6, 2013

    This was the most entertaining article I have read in a long time. It was also the best history of Newfoundland I have ever come across. A fine piece of work!

  17. Cathy Young · March 6, 2013

    Oops, sorry, I meant to say Newfoundland and Labrador.

  18. WJM · March 6, 2013

    Why would you say that, when the article is almost entirely bereft of anything to do with Labrador’s history?

  19. Sean · March 6, 2013

    Wally, she’s just saying it because the province’s official name is Newfoundland and Labrador. Your criticism regarding the omission of Labrador content is duly noted. Why not write and submit an article for Scope called “A Brief History of Labrador”?

  20. Kevin · March 6, 2013

    here is an interesting look at Labrador and it’s history


  21. anon3 · March 6, 2013

    and not a mention of how our ‘successful’ little rock is propped up by Oil money.
    god forbid we should admit to that sin.
    “Canada is a great country.” and “we’re a have province”
    have ethics issues.
    have serious Native People’s issues in Labrador (where the Native MHA takes loans to get elected).
    have bad and inconsiderate drivers.
    have ignorance and intolerance and racism.
    have terrible service standards – across the board.
    have no control over our own fishing grounds.
    have no fish.
    have too much pride.
    have too much xenophobia.
    have tons of jobs in Oil and Construction and Engineering, but none in creative.
    have housing bubble.
    have poor options for mid-lower class.
    have average healthcare with expensive managers not doing their jobs.
    have n’ a time – oops! I owe DD a royalty…
    have too many fat folks in big trucks eating at drivethrus.
    have headache, going to bed.

  22. Stace · March 6, 2013

    Excellent take on our provinces history. Once I started reading, I couldn’t put it down! Excellent read.. Especially for those who don’t know about Newfoundland! Thanks, Drew :)